Category Archives: Student Blogs

The Swan Song Joint

I been broached the bag and let the cat out on language discrimination. This post the pick of the litter, though.

From jumpstreet y’all seen me go in on folks out here hatin on other folks for how they talk, for not speaking “right,” or advocating the adoption of a standard language ideology (SLI) for the sake of being taken seriously.

I hit y’all wit facts on how implicit racial biases function in interpretations of rhetoric, whether “good” or “bad,” to make salient disparities in what folks consider acceptable and not.

My disdain for the code switchin interface was the epicenter of one post where I equate it to skin bleachin because just so you know.

Y’all met my main man Dr. Vay, Dr Vershawn Young, up in Canada, who was the one in the first place to put me on to all this scholarship dealin wit languages and SLI and implicit ideological biases when it come to how folks represent they-selves through they rhetoric. A gajillion thanks are in order just so you know. I’m on it.

And for the MOOC, I did a bite on how multiculturalism is a reductive term for how we sprinkle differences (but we frontin’!) without any advocacy for accepting differences, introduced y’all to my thesis, “‘With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility’–and so I can’t keep quiet about Brian Micheal Bendis’ Spider-Man”.

So rather than mount another soapbox in a philippic I’m going to feel some kind of way about at the end of the day, I’ve curated videos as illustrations to demonstrate just how nonsensical our efforts in bifurcating and/or compartmentalizing our identities really is. I’m an agent of chaos in rhetoric, I feel like. I want folks to feel invited (and empowered!) to talk how they wanna talk sans paranoia about how they’re either being received or going to.

The following video is a promo bit featuring my good homie Dr. Vershawn Young (Dr. Vay), who a proponent of code meshin (and coiner of the term!) as a viable linguistic variant with which to endow folks.

(insert Dr Vay footage)

To begin: Selective hearing is a thing but this is different, I feel like. It might be re-writing history, or something. How is it that people can off the bat misinterpret people? do you think that’s the case? does/can race have something to do with it?

Next two clips of Obama imaginably just being Obama. What you think is the point of these clips that they’d be isolated and set down into the social arena for us to find like this? what does that say about our values, if anything? is that OK? Thoughts.

Next clip a sketch from SNL called “Black Jeopardy”. The popular gameshow Jeopardy is reimagined as something unlike its original decorum. Pay attention to the categories and the answers the contestants give and are rewarded for. Can you think of any black gameshows? of them, how “black” are they? is that controversial, you think? Measuring to what extent a thing is a thing? Your thoughts.

Here go Key & Peele, y’all. This scenario feature the brothers switchin up they speech in front of one another. And while it’s conceivable to believe people would switch from a presumably “bad” dialect to a “good” one they’re going to get respect for, can it be the other way around? Why do you think these men would do this? And: what else? Thoughts.

Finally, a bit of Thug Notes by Sparky Sweets, PhD. As it say, “the channel where you’ll learn your ass off.” This meant to demonstrate how a nonstandard variant of English, particularly Black English, get the job done in rendering a summary and response; peep game.


Even Still I Spit

Yo, I know we pretty much done wit the blogs and stuff, but can I just say–Maybe y’all’ve heard bout the tohubohu surrounding the recent Common debacle. Your Boy actually been dialoguing wit the prez of Stu Org bout it. Dissatisfied wit the response and incapable of placating the miniature cock-diesel provocateur on the inside I couldn’t resist. Anyway: he and I cool now, for now, but the beef still not squashed the way me sees it. Their reasoning just too wrongheaded for my sensibilities; I’m also not all that easy to offend, no lie.

At the backdrop of the Common thing are two things: for one, lyrics to a 2000 song of Common’s lauding Assata Shakur; the other is Obama peacing things up wit Cuba. NJ State Police were all over that like, “We want Assata Shakur”; Cuba, however, say that even if communication lines reopen between US and them, they ain givin up Shakur. Now the situation surrounding Shakur a li’l complicated, but basically she killt a cop durin a stop on NJ Turnpike, bounced to Cuba, been there since. But it’s complicated. For more: read this or this or this.

Now they (Kean) afraid of a media swarm trumping the meaning of Commencement and NJ’s Finest’s refusal to work the event wit Common as speaker on some pretty petty-type stuff, Kean says. (But not in keeping your boy Farahi as figurehead with all his suspect behind credentials? You would think!) Meanwhile: Common performed at Kean just last year for Black History Month, making him the same “problematic” individual this year as last. Stu Org prez tell me that this not just a wholly stu org-sponsored event where they can just waft a hand at criticism at: it was a downstream decree, so they had no choice, so they say. Either way, Kean’s favorable response to police refusing to work an event that has nothing to do with them strikes me as more than dangerous. Can we say coercive isomorphism? Can we say hegemony; or homogeny, the “H” word? Martial Law? I mean, whaddayall think? And whaddayall think about this–

–Princeton got overtly crass raconteur Big Sean coming to perform at one of their upcoming annual outdoor joints and some students upset about it. They’re citing lyrics of Sean’s as misogynistic, homophobic–the same old ass arguments stay being used to criminalize and stigmatize rappers and hip hop culture but not others and theirs. In response to the ire, Princeton prez Chris Eisgruber sent an email; see infra

Dear Students, Faculty, and Staff,  

            Our campus community is in the midst of two impassioned debates about the impact and limits of stage performances.  One debate pertains to the moral culpability of a now-defunct student group “Urban Congo,” a group whose performances were described by its own president as “inexcusably offensive.”  The group has apologized and disbanded.  The second debate addresses the Undergraduate Student Government’s invitation to Big Sean, a rapper whose songs include lyrics that are vile and demeaning to women and LGBT individuals.

             Comedy, satire, and stage performances inevitably transgress boundaries.  The controversies they provoke may be genuinely painful, but they are also fundamental to the life of any great University.  As the faculty of this University affirmed in a statement that it adopted earlier this week, “the University’s fundamental commitment is to the principle that debate or deliberation may not be suppressed because the ideas put forth are thought by some or even by most members of the University community to be offensive, unwise, immoral, or wrong-headed.  … Indeed, fostering the ability of members of the University community to engage in such debate and deliberation in an effective and responsible manner is an essential part of the University’s educational mission.”

            We must all be mindful, however, that the debates now agitating our campus play out against two backdrops that profoundly affect their impact on the members of our community.  First, these debates occur in a time scarred by searing violence—by, in one case, the discriminatory and sometimes deadly use of force against African-Americans, and, in the other case, the disturbing and damaging incidence of sexual assault on college campuses and throughout society.  Second, they occur in a new era of social media that breeds an insidious combination of hostility, anonymity, and proximity.  In venomous slurs uttered online by anonymous neighbors or classmates, our students see distressing and painful expression within our community of the prejudices and motives that underlie the violence disturbing our nation.

            We owe it to ourselves to do better, to be better, and to embrace all the members of our community with respect and with genuine appreciation for the perspectives they bring.  We must treat individuals, groups, and cultures with the dignity they deserve; we must not traffic in stereotypes.  I accordingly implore all of the Princeton community to live up to our ideals, to recognize the pain being felt by some members of our community, and to express ourselves in the veiled and dehumanized precincts of social media with the same care that we should bring to more personal interactions.

I also invite you to come together in a fuller, more human, and more personal way by joining me this Sunday, April 12, at 2:00 p.m. for a gathering of our campus community in the University Chapel that will provide us all with an opportunity to recognize the obligations we have to understand and care for each other, to affirm the ties that bind us together, and to strengthen the community that we share.  We hope that this gathering will also lay the groundwork for further constructive engagement in the weeks to come, including a faculty panel to be held next week. 

Chris Eisgruber,

President of Princeton University 

Don’t ask how i got, but we don’t even need to conduct a comparative analysis, or anything, of the two aforementioned scenarios to rule out which mo betta. And it not even like I agreed like that with Common as Commencement speaker in the first place because who here even a rapper like that? I can’t even tell you, really, what Commencement really about beyond quaffing too much cerveza con sus hermanos y hermanas because, yo, you just fuckin graduated college, son.

But what I know about college, what is and has been rudimentary to academia since forever, is what Eisgruber said. (Which not to say that I’m or was in congruence wit the #RaceTogether mess Starbucks was pulling. And I don’t know much bout Urban Congo, but it sounded like a minstrel show, and you can miss me wit that mess altogether, actually)

But I am (or would like to) herewith, forthwith, calling a meeting on this this as the implications actually do have something to do wit all of us, and all our warm halcyon virtues.

(…And can I also say that Your Boy been feeling funky as of late. All funkdafied, words like this were borderline impossible to manifest, the legerdemain all off. Even my emails to the prez felt a li’l wonky: all precarious, the words, every one a kerplunk–no cannonball. Maybe that’s trying too hard, how it is sometimes, if you’re a writer, when the writing don’t come the way you’d want-like it to, in swoops rather than requiring C4-grade blasts. Take cover, though–because I’m blowup-tuating right now.)


Just a thought :)

I was very nervous at first about the thought of trying to create a MOOC as mentioned in my previous blog post, but I feel like it is all coming together quite beautifully! I loved the measures we took to create it with the guidance of Nikki as well as having our very own subpage to work on. Though it was my first time working on this type of webpage, Maria and I killed it and were able to get our video and pictures on to our subpage. (not without a little bit of difficulty though I may add)

I love what this class is doing and the thought of others joining our conversation in the next four weeks is very exciting! This class has turned out to be SOO much more than just a class and so much more than I ever expected it to be! It is a movement! And one that I am very proud to be apart of.

Creating a MOOC

Working on the MOOC was much easier than I originally thought. I have to admit that initially I was nervous to the point that I had anxiety about producing any work. I was not sure what I wanted to put out there for everyone to see. Once I started adding text, it seemed to all come together. After I saw what my peers were working on, it gave me more of an understanding of what was expected.

The MOOC looks amazing, and I find that it is hard to stop adding content to it. Knowing that it was going live last week was a little stressful, but I made it through. In my group, we added our names to our content, so it made it that more personal. I am anxiously awaiting feedback. I am hoping we all delivered. We put our heart and souls in the creativity of this project. I praying we touch someone's hear and mind with what we have done.

MOOC Unit-Writing Reflection

Previous post is my contribution to the MOOC. I’ve yet to link anything, but links soon come. They might help trim some of the wordage, though I’m not sure if it’s too wordy. What I gleaned from other MOOCs is that while some parts are streamlined with links and videos, some parts read like short essays with hyperlinks and images interspersed. And because code meshing is a linguistics thing, not something people casually confabulate about in a bar or at dinner, I figured more better. I could be wrong, though. That I have before. Not admitting to a fault, however. I’m an Aries. Can’t wait to see the finished product, though–happy writing, y’all. <3


What Is Codemeshing?

A Definition-ish

The masticated version is code meshing language blending. Mo betta: it language democracy. (It, e.g., wha I’ms doing when I elect to idiosyncratically phono-trip on the sentential tip with the wordage the way I just done did, with the syntax borderline tohubohu and smacking of somethin you might’ve caught on your No. 1 overtly crass track, 808s booming, something. That said–and this a brother talkin just so y’all know–it not just a black thang. It ain even a remedial thing. It’s just a thing, unless you prefer “thang”.)

It refer to the concurrent use of different languages, dialects, and genres, sounds, and even more distinct linguistic features and conventions in a single rhetorical performance. As a one Vershawn Young notes, It’s more than mixing Spanish and English; it not necessarily Spanglish or Chinese English, or “Chinglish”. Break the epidermis and code meshing more than just arbitrarily inserting so-called “nonstandard” wordage, verbiage, language, aqui y alli. It’s chaos in language–and if you know anything bout chaos: it’s fair.

Why Codemeshing, d’o[gh]h?

Because–for reasons. Seriously, though: it not like a gun to our heads to codemesh like that–that is, if we don’t value other folks languages like that. That is, if we not about that language equality life I’m taumbout. That is, if it under the lot of us to adopt another (language, dialect) for the sake of another brother or sister of the humankind variety different than us. That is, if we don’t find it a li’l sus that the way you talk, especially if you non-White (when White folk out here been butchering they heirloom all higgledy-piggledy since forever) could mean the rest of yo colored life.

And should we not, right–for that you got folks out here pushin that code chicanery switching. Code switching: the deliberate use of one language over another at a given time as the rhetorical situation calls for it. Traditionally, this mean speaking one way with, say, yo boyz, and another with your bosses and/or teachers. This mean all that “I mean, like, I’m sayin, yo,” garbage relegated to the “streets” (unless it’s “streetz”) whereas that “Queen English” jus fine bout every place else you go. And some take it further, talkin bout how it BETTER for one to drop all that whatever-the-hell else they be talkin altogether and speak “proper”.

Disabusing oneself of they Primary Discourse is something speakers of nonstandard English, or just another language altogether, been doing for years: First Generation immigrants in this country be giving it to they seeds when it comes to how they speak; they say they gotta learn proper English if they want to be successful, get a job, keep a job, be respected. Black parents pulled that cajoling stuff on their youngsters, too, chuckin they favorite hiphop CDs out moving cars, unless that was me and my boyz’ folks.

Codeswitching as Language Bleaching

Think of it this way: designating one language King of another, let alone everyone, is NO QUESTION discrimination; straight up. Code Switching, to invoke Young, is rooted in segregationist ideology, the notion of “same but not equal.” It effects hierarchal complexes when it come to how people perceive language; it make peeps bias towards language, favoring one way of speech over another. And granted: why it might be funny from time to crack on a person bout how they non-articulate anything ever cuz they speech a hotmess (I’ve done it, had it done to me, peeped others doing, it’s a thing) it not the same as codifying features of other (or Other) people’s speech jus so that you can discriminate against; i.e., not hire them; or, rather, hire them for a job they not gonna be interacting with people on. That type of reduction be making people mad self conscious, yo; be making them wanna not be themselves, not even around blood. They get around blood an can’t even talk to them anymore, they feel like. Because they done went an gone forfeited they heritage, they Home Dialect, Language, Discourse, don another and just so that they can earn a li’l cred in the marketplace. Tell me now (and be real witcha Boy, too) how that not the same as, say, selling ya soul, ballooning ya breasts to sick-ass-hentai-porn proportions, or bleaching yo skin (Think–Sammy Sosa) just to be mo palatable?

“Multiculuralism” a Joke

AKA “multiculti,” it the “Newest, Latest” the suits in they conglomerates selling minorities and Liberal Whites on. It’s the flava of the month–hittin’ y’all a li’l bit of that everythang! Because–POSTRACIAL.

But we’ve been trying to establish here that code meshing gotta also do more with that deep structural stuff that go on past the epidermis of just mixing “standard” and “nonstandard” words together in communication. If you look at it, codemeshing appeal to the myriad of sensibilities if you doing it right. Language is rooted in experience, it’s how certain language speakers relate to the world around them, identify with things.

Standard English (Ideology) only appeal to one sensibility, though. And such linguistic myopia detrimental to those whose language composition not hidebound by the dominant, or even representative of it; e.g. Black English speakers.

The thing about cultural sensibilities, though: don’t everybody share the same. What I deem important to talk about, focus on, is based on my cultural sensibilities which may not necessarily align with those of the dominant culture; so we not going 2 c i 2 i. And we far from having equal representation of folks representing they-selves in this country. So what you got are a bunch of privileged folks doing the job of portraying Other people within a consumer based exploitative media culture whose sensibilities are in contrast to the actual people their representing. That’s like me assuming authority on women when I’m nor have ever been a woman. But I’m going to come out my face and portray a woman while expecting to capture all of the nuances that make being a woman, in whatever context, womanhood. That’s not right.

But it stay happening is what I’m sayin. Representation of The Minority by The Dominant be diaphanous, as in flimsy, un-authentic, fresh off the conveyor belt. Straight bologna. It been long planted ( what people should be focused on, interested in, be getting a kick out of, by the dominant since, like, forever. This why I take issue with today’s issues of comics. Not that I don’t dig how they making historically white guys into women and/or brown people, but is it genuine? Or: how genuine is it? And: should it matter?

Think–Is it plausible for every brown person to speak the way they white and male and straight counterparts speak; or act the way they act? Also who’re we entrusting with these delicacies? And: why should we? Because just because?

Like, we not superheroes, and I get it: getting all in a dither bout how this person representing me and mines in the realm of fiction shouldn’t be all that red hot, maybe. But if we gon suspend reality when it come to defying gravity, clearing edifices in singles bounds, and such, then at least give us that. It not all that irrational, much of an overreaction to take writers, editors, illustrators–ALL OF THE PORTRAYERS THEM–to task when it comes to writing race.

I’m out; 1.


Blog 4 Conversations about Race

Why do we need to have conversations about race?

We need to have conversations about race because it makes us behave in ways that effect how we function in society. From a biological factor such as skin color, we form these ideologies about people's languages and cultures. Racism becomes a mental illness we all suffer from, in the sense that it is desensitizing. We forget that we are a human race-- instead we are broken down to ethnic categories that allow us to be victims of discrimination, social exclusion, marginalization, genocide, cultural mistrust and colorism. Fear, hate, and schizophrenic ideologies of superiority separate us, when in fact we are all equal. Which means, if my neighbor lay on a operating table on the brink of death, I can give him my blood, or my organs to sustain his/her life. It doesn't matter what race, color or creed I am.
For 37 years, I have struggled with the pain of racism and how it has effected my journey through life. Being a victim can cause so much detriment to your soul and self-worth. Being in this class, having conversations about our experiences has allowed me to move forward with a lot of my issues. Talking about race can do the same for others. Reading about race relations, identifying issues that effect the community allowed me to learn why I have been a victim, as well as other cultures. Culturally, minority groups are underrepresented in ever aspect of American culture from sciences, the arts, media, literature, and popular culture. Our histories are ignored, and stereotype and ignorance are standing in place of our real identities.

To shift the tides we need to confront the stereotypes, microaggressions, and racial biases head on. Black bodies are only respected for entertainment on the basketball courts, and football fields, or as objects of sexuality. All Latinos are being identified as immigrants-- America's problem, yet the solution to economic development in the labor industry. Muslims are viewed as a threat to the security of our nations borders. While Asian American's seem to be synonymous with math and technology. Once we get past these assumptions, we can look to seek some form of justice and social change. 







A speculation, a marathon, a gamechanger

To begin, dig: coming clean. Your Boy ain seen his group all break-week long. That not to say he ain been working. He just been working. But he back off that break now like therapy and game for what’s up, know what I’m sayin. Or he sayin. Never mind.

As for what’s up, secondly: all hunkered down in The Stacks all week before literally pounds of dusty hardcovers ain NO ONE probly even THINKIN bout checkin out no time soonish and I thought I just might confiscate for perpetuity, Your Boy stumbled pawn a revelation.

Celestial orbs all aligned (plus being all mean-like to my vitals, disabusin myself of the necessity to sleep and eat, in pursuit of my best iteration) scribbling the whole thang down was borderline an immaculate birth. (This call to mind a one Hova’s mama’s intro off dat Black Album, when she said, saying, “Weighing at 10lbs, 8oz, he was the last of my four children, the only one who didn’t give me any pain when I gave birth to him, and that’s how I knew that he was a special chile.” And that not to say I’s proprietor of some nextlevel topline stuff–just justifyin my thug, you feel me.)

So. A one Walter Ong, he once said that the audience always a fiction

–Check it: Ong, he say that being that writing basically neé rhetoric, the game been done changed since cats started putting utensils to wood pulp and ceased droppin science via they emceeing.

Because, see, for the writer, information sent in time pods on some cryogenic stuff: it’s static, and stagnant, till it dredge up and get all oxidized. If they wanna appeal to the sensibilities of an audience, or non-audience, whether invoked or addressed, living Now Now or Tomorrow, they then gonna have to make them up, i.e., the audience.

So: writing is makebelieve, yes? Not like fugazi, but it’s imaginative like that.

Writing, the efficacy thereof then be pendent on the efficacy of the imagination a one author done imbued the composition with. Then: The tighter yo imagination of your reader the better you cast your reader into whateva role they meant to play and the better the setup gone be for them to follow yo rhetoric. This, he say, is “ficitonalization,” and it’s a twoway street, for just as author fictionalize so do reader.

The reader embodies the role said author casts them in. Say you an actor, right. You get a script. Script basically directions for you in order to get the point of your role in relation to others’ as they all pertain to the umbriferous storyline across to a live audience, right, if it’s a play. Same thing with writing.

Except wit writing: reader both actor and audience. So: if you can’t imagine yo reader like that, yo writin gone be funky, bcuz it intrinsically hidebound by the identity of yo reader. Which is why it hard (or at least for me) to write a paper on the subject: “What I Want To Be When I Grow Up”. Because who in the hell am I even talking-wriitng to, because no ever asked or asks, or is even really asking me that, really. Consideration thereof never crossed Your Boy’s Third Eye. And even if it did, the audience is who, my teacher, because I would never speak to my teacher bout no C-4 classified material such as how I wanna be a rapper that.

Wha i wanna be when I grow up? I mean, with the presence of mind at the time I was 7, maybe, maybe I could’ve went:

“Hi, Batman. When I grow up, I wanna be just like you. Because you fite badguys and i want to fite badguys, too. I know cops fite badguys but they sometimes mean to people. Cops scare me, too. You not mean, though. You don’t scare me. I’m not a badguy, though. And you not a cop, neither. You Batman!”

And this precisely what Ong gettin at: audience is always reduced to one monolithic person, fictionalized, invoked or addressed, though some may argue “addressed,” especially when you consider “jargon” and “nomenclatures” and the one about ‘talking the talk,’ which implies that an audience already DO exist, the sensibilities thereof always given primacy by the author for the sake of being received. (And, duly noted.)

But that is what I feel like my beef is exactly with the whole writer-reader infrastructure. Because Ong fail to communicate who actually our imaginative audience are–or “is” rather. Think–Demographics.

He say that this fictionalization process done moved downstream, essentially framing all our expressions. We take point from what others have done and has been known to work, or at least get dollars thrown at it, i.e., sell. In which case then: we have to consider the makeups of The Runners: you know, white guys.

And so it safe to assume, I feel like–that everything done and STILL being done is to appeal to the cultural sensibilities of the dominant culture, or so I do speculate. Hence: “a speculation,” the encomium of the eponymy of this expression.

So “multiculturalism” ain no more multicultural as postracial America is postracial; that it not really multiculturalism, at least not beyond the epidermis.

And when you consider the prolific number of scholarship out there on comics as multimodal technology in the teaching of writing and reading literacy–Yo, ain nuffin gonna change then. Because we still maintaining that same tip when it come to that communication, at least in public. And we can’t ignore the deleterious effects of such cerebral cleansing: the idea that one language trumps another, especially if that language (the one being faded) your primary language, or dialect. Cajoling like that not fair–Can I get a witness??

We teach folks to code switch as if this something to be proud of–and while I get that some folks proud thereof, how do we then explain telling minorities to carry themselves a certain way in public so not to be perceived a certain way by the police; meanwhile: everyone else (White) not; so: Why? (And just think of being lefthanded in this righthanded world. I’m left-handed, for one. I STAY having to deal with technology and just things favoring righthanded folk. No amount of switching training or attempts as disabusin me of the use of my lefthand gonna change that–I’s gone be a southpaw till I DIE, a physiological minority dealin with righthandedness the same way racial minorities deal with disparities in how they can or can’t carry themselves in public; and that not fair. And like homegirl Smitherman done noted of a one Nikki Giovanni: “that’s why we always lose, not only cause we don’t know the rules, but it ain’t even our game” (“White English”).)


Blog #6

Introduction to my Unit:

My topic under Race and Pop Culture is humor. Humor is an important part of our course because it shows how we, as a society have evolved. It also discusses what could still be offensive to some, and serve as an educational lesson which would lead to a relaxed discussion on race and ethnicity. Questions I plan to cover are:

  • Why is it funny?
  • What about these comedy pieces do we like or dislike?
  • Is there something we find offensive?
  • If the research mentioned wasn’t known, then how would we feel about it?

 

Presentation of course Materials:

This list is (currently) an ever changing list. But so far here are some of the materials I hope to use:

  • “Everyone’s a Little Bit Racist” from Avenue Q
  • Good Hair starring Chris Rock
  • Interviews including Chris Rock
  • Scenes from How I met your Mother (Neil Patrick Harris and Wayne Brady are brothers in the show)

These materials will all show snippets of video most likely via Youtube.

After showing a clip of desired pieces, ask “Why is this funny?” Follow up with the research behind the comedy.

I plan to use a powerpoint type of presentation and provide link and citation for all of my resources. I also plan to link the presentation to my blog. This way my classmates will have access to the resources if they wish to look further.

 

A List of Public events

As far as this goes, I’m not entirely sure which I would like to use. I know that my group and I discussed have a group Twitter chat using a hashtag we came up with: #poprae. We had not talked about doing separate ones. I would like to bring this idea up to my group.


Black is…bad?

White is right

A conversation that my group and I stumbled upon and spent time to discuss. We included our cultures experiences of whitening cream and how being lighter skinned is desired across all spectrum of ethnicity. In my own experience, I know for a fact that lighter-skinned filipinos are known as Mestizos (mixed with any other heritage, in most cases Spanish) which are seen as the more "attractive" and desired skin tones. It is so important to the point where people using whitening creams, bleaching their skin, and taking in supplements all in order to whiten their skin.

But how did this universal belief that white is beautiful begin? With a belief like that, minorities are already internalizing that they are placed on a lower level. But a question that we asked ourselves was when does this conditioned belief begin? Does it start when we go to school? Is it something that is learned in history books? I came across a study done on YouTube including a White doll and a Black doll and I think it answered the question to a certain extent, that this starts much earlier than we expected.

I don't expect you to watch the entire thing (I didn't finish it myself) but I thought it was definitely an intriguing thing to watch. This class taught me that there is much more than learning, that there is such a thing called "un-learning" and it is just as important as its counterpart.